As drones become increasingly accessible and affordable, their usage has grown exponentially across the African continent. While drones have numerous beneficial applications, such as in agriculture, infrastructure monitoring, and disaster response, they are also being employed by non-state actors for illicit activities, posing significant security challenges. Non-state actors, including insurgent groups, terrorists, and criminal organizations, have been leveraging drones for reconnaissance, surveillance, and weapon delivery purposes. Despite the growing threat posed by drones in Africa, many African militaries are falling short in fielding adequate counter-unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) solutions, leaving security forces vulnerable to emerging threats.
The proliferation of drones in Africa has been driven by several factors. First, drones are becoming more affordable and accessible, with a wide range of models available in the market at different price points. This has made it easier for non-state actors to acquire drones and use them for their nefarious activities. Second, the lack of comprehensive regulations and guidelines for drone usage in many African countries has made it difficult for governments to effectively manage and control drone operations. This regulatory gap has been exploited by non-state actors who can operate drones without facing significant legal consequences. Third, the vast and often challenging terrains in Africa, including dense forests, deserts, and remote regions, make it difficult for security forces to effectively detect and intercept drones, allowing non-state actors to exploit these operational gaps.
Despite the increasing threat posed by drones from non-state actors in Africa, many African militaries have been slow to adopt and field adequate counter-UAV solutions. There are several reasons for this shortfall. One key reason is the lack of awareness and understanding of the evolving threat landscape posed by drones. Many African countries have limited expertise and resources dedicated to unmanned aerial systems (UAS) and counter-UAV capabilities, leading to a lack of awareness and understanding of the risks associated with drones. Inadequate training, knowledge, and technical expertise in dealing with drones hinder the effective response of African militaries to this emerging security challenge.
Another challenge is the cost associated with acquiring and deploying counter-UAV solutions. Many African countries face budgetary constraints, with limited resources allocated to defense spending. The acquisition of specialized counter-UAV systems can be expensive, requiring significant financial investment in research and development, procurement, and training. This financial burden poses challenges for African militaries, limiting their ability to acquire and field effective counter-UAV solutions.
Furthermore, the rapid pace of technological advancements in the drone industry presents a significant challenge for African militaries. Drone technology is constantly evolving, with new models being introduced in the market with improved capabilities such as longer flight ranges, higher payloads, and increased autonomy. Keeping up with the rapidly evolving drone technology landscape requires regular updates to counter-UAV systems, which can be resource-intensive and time-consuming. Many African countries struggle to keep pace with these technological advancements, further hindering their ability to effectively counter the threat posed by drones.
Additionally, the lack of coordination and information sharing among African countries is another obstacle to effective counter-UAV solutions. Non-state actors often operate across borders, making it crucial for African countries to collaborate and share intelligence on drone activities. However, limited cooperation and coordination among African countries in addressing the drone threat have hampered the development of effective regional strategies and solutions.
The consequences of inadequate counter-UAV solutions are severe. Non-state actors have exploited the security gaps to carry out activities such as surveillance, reconnaissance, and weapon delivery, posing a threat to national security, public safety, and critical infrastructure. Insurgent groups, terrorist organizations, and criminal networks have used drones for nefarious purposes, including conducting attacks on military bases, civilian populations, and critical infrastructure such as airports and power plants. For example, in countries like Nigeria, Somalia, and Libya, insurgent groups and terrorists organizations have used drones to gather intelligence, conduct surveillance, and deliver explosives to target military and civilian installations. These activities have resulted in casualties, destruction of property, and disruptions to essential services, further exacerbating the security situation in these regions.
Non-state actors have also used drones for illicit activities such as smuggling of weapons, drugs, and other contraband across borders. Drones provide a low-cost and low-risk means of transportation, allowing criminal networks to evade traditional security measures. This has serious implications for law enforcement agencies, border security, and efforts to combat transnational crime.
Moreover, drones have been employed for espionage and information warfare purposes. Non-state actors have used drones to gather sensitive information, conduct surveillance on government facilities, and disrupt communication networks, posing a threat to national security and sovereignty. The lack of effective counter-UAV solutions has left African countries vulnerable to such activities, undermining their ability to safeguard their national interests.
In light of these emerging threats, it is imperative for African militaries to prioritize the development and deployment of effective counter-UAV solutions. African countries need to recognize the evolving threat landscape posed by drones and take proactive measures to mitigate these risks. Here are some key recommendations for African militaries to enhance their counter-UAV capabilities:
Raise awareness and understanding:
African countries need to invest in educating their defense forces and law enforcement agencies about the capabilities and risks associated with drones. This includes providing training on drone detection, identification, and mitigation techniques. It is crucial to develop a comprehensive understanding of the evolving drone threat landscape and stay updated with the latest technological advancements in the field.
Foster regional cooperation:
African countries should foster regional cooperation and information sharing to effectively combat the cross-border nature of drone activities. This includes sharing intelligence on drone operations, conducting joint exercises, and developing regional strategies and standard operating procedures for counter-UAV operations. Enhanced regional cooperation can help in pooling resources, expertise, and capabilities, leading to a more robust response to the drone threat.
Invest in research and development:
African countries should allocate resources for research and development to develop indigenous counter-UAV technologies. This includes investing in local research institutions, universities, and startups to develop innovative solutions tailored to the African context. This can help in reducing dependency on foreign technologies, making counter-UAV solutions more affordable and accessible.
Develop a comprehensive regulatory framework:
African countries need to establish comprehensive regulatory frameworks for drone operations. This includes licensing and registration requirements for drone operators, guidelines for safe and responsible drone usage, and penalties for illegal drone activities. A robust regulatory framework can help in managing and controlling drone operations, making it harder for non-state actors to exploit regulatory gaps.
Procure and deploy effective counter-UAV systems:
African countries should prioritize the procurement and deployment of effective counter-UAV systems. This includes technologies such as radar systems, jamming devices, and net-carrying drones for intercepting and neutralizing hostile drones. These systems should be integrated into existing defense and security architectures and should be operated by well-trained personnel to ensure their effective utilization.
Here are the list of African countries with an active C-UAS solution
- Morocco: Israeli Skylock C-UAS
- Ethiopia: Israeli Skylock C-UAS
- Zambia: Silent Sentinel’s Jaegar C-UAS
- Ivory Coast: APS FIELDctrl 3D MIMO C-UAS solution
- Mozambique: MC-Horizon 360D C-UAS
- Algeria: Israeli Alinet EW Sigint system and CEW-03A truck-mounted EW system
- Libya (LNA): Chinese-made Starlight Drone Defender and DHI-UAV-D-1000JHV2 portable anti-drone weapon.
- Angola: Electtronica ship-based EW system
- Egypt: operates a large range of homebuilt C-UAV designs. Most are still in development stage.
Foster public-private partnerships:
African countries should explore public-private partnerships to leverage private sector expertise and resources in developing and deploying counter-UAV solutions. This includes collaborating with local and international defense contractors, technology companies, and startups to develop innovative solutions and share the financial burden of acquiring and maintaining counter-UAV systems.
Train and empower personnel:
African countries should invest in training and capacity building of defense and law enforcement personnel to effectively operate and maintain counter-UAV systems. This includes providing training on drone detection, identification, and mitigation techniques, as well as operational procedures and rules of engagement for dealing with drones. Empowering personnel with the necessary knowledge and skills is critical to ensure that counter-UAV operations are conducted safely, effectively, and in compliance with applicable laws and regulations.
Conduct regular risk assessments:
African countries should conduct regular risk assessments to identify vulnerabilities and potential targets for drone attacks. This includes assessing critical infrastructure, military bases, government facilities, and public gatherings to determine the level of risk and vulnerability to drone threats. Based on these assessments, appropriate counter-UAV measures can be implemented to mitigate the risks.
Enhance situational awareness:
African countries should invest in advanced sensor technologies such as radars, electro-optical/infrared (EO/IR) systems, and other surveillance tools to enhance situational awareness and detect, track, and identify drones in real-time. This can help in early detection and timely response to drone threats, preventing potential damage or harm.
Foster innovation and adaptability:
African countries should foster a culture of innovation and adaptability in their defense and security forces to keep pace with the rapidly evolving drone threat landscape. This includes continuously monitoring and evaluating emerging technologies, exploring new concepts and tactics, and adapting counter-UAV solutions to changing threat scenarios. Regular training, exercises, and drills should be conducted to ensure that personnel are prepared to respond effectively to evolving drone threats.
Collaborate with international partners:
African countries should collaborate with international partners, including other countries, international organizations, and regional security bodies, to share best practices, lessons learned, and information on emerging threats. This includes participating in international forums, workshops, and exercises focused on counter-UAV operations. International cooperation can provide valuable insights and resources to strengthen African countries’ counter-UAV capabilities.
Consider ethical implications:
African countries should also consider the ethical implications of counter-UAV operations. It is important to ensure that any counter-UAV measures employed are in compliance with international humanitarian law, human rights standards, and other relevant legal frameworks. Measures should be proportional, necessary, and in line with the principles of legality, humanity, necessity, and proportionality to avoid unintended consequences and potential harm to innocent civilians.
In conclusion, the emergence of drones as a tool for non-state actors to conduct illicit activities, gather intelligence, and conduct attacks poses a significant threat to African countries’ security and stability. Despite the increasing drone threat, African militaries have been slow to adopt and field effective counter-UAV solutions. It is crucial for African countries to recognize the evolving threat landscape posed by drones and take proactive measures to develop and deploy effective counter-UAV capabilities.
Investing in education, research and development, regional cooperation, regulatory frameworks, procurement of advanced technologies, training and capacity building, situational awareness, innovation, and collaboration with international partners are key elements of a comprehensive approach to counter the drone threat. By prioritizing and integrating these measures into their defense and security strategies, African countries can enhance their capabilities to detect, track, identify, and mitigate drone threats, safeguarding their national interests, protecting critical infrastructure, and ensuring the safety and security of their populations.